The 4 Stages of a Fire

By most standards including the International Fire Service Training Association (IFSTA) there are 4 stages of a fire.  These stages are incipient, growth, fully developed, and decay.  The following is a brief overview of each stage.

Incipient – This first stage begins when heat, oxygen and a fuel source combine and have a chemical reaction resulting in fire.  This is also known as “ignition” and is usually represented by a very small fire which often (and hopefully) goes out on its own, before the following stages are reached.  Recognizing a fire in this stage provides your best chance at suppression or escape.

Growth – The growth stage is where the structures fire load and oxygen are used as fuel for the fire. There are numerous factors affecting the growth stage including where the fire started, what combustibles are near it, ceiling height and the potential for “thermal layering”.  It is during this shortest of the 4 stages when a deadly “flashover” can occur; potentially trapping, injuring or killing firefighters.

Fully Developed – When the growth stage has reached its max and all combustible materials have been ignited, a fire is considered fully developed.  This is the hottest phase of a fire and the most dangerous for anybody trapped within.


Decay – Usually the longest stage of a fire, the decay stage is characterized a significant decrease in oxygen or fuel, putting an end to the fire.  Two common dangers during this stage are first – the existence of non-flaming combustibles, which can potentially start a new fire if not fully extinguished.  Second, there is the danger of a backdraft when oxygen is reintroduced to a volatile, confined space.

The stages of a fire and associated heat

About the Author

Josh Sauberman is the author of the Journey To Firefighter blog. He is a graduate of the Los Medanos Fire Academy, and a Resident Firefighter/EMT with the Cordelia Fire Department since March 2010. Originally from New York, he earned his B.S. degree at the University of Arizona,Tucson and subsequently an A.S. in Fire Technology from Los Medanos College. Josh lives in the San Francisco suburb, Walnut Creek and has worked as an EMT as well as a professional in the fire restoration industry . He still pursues a full-time role in the career he plans to retire from - Firefighting.